S.S. Tentacles Over XIX Century
>July 13, 1793, when Carolina Corday stabbed Jacobin tribune John Paul Marat,
you can conventionally considered as the beginning of terrorism in society industrialism.
It is in this formation terrorism radiates a particularly lush.
Why? The causes are complex.
The power of the state and the complexity of its structure calls into question the chances of success of an uprising or a palace coup (were reminded of that even tirelessly Blanquists),
while the progressive breakdown of traditional ties pushes a unit (especially medium class, intellectuals and peasants) to individual action. Urban character of civilization, forced to engage in “guerrilla warfare” in the cities, which helps to technical progress.
Media, providing rapid and widespread information, create public opinion, and it allows terrorists from using “indirect strategy”.
As rightly pointed H. Hartwig:
“It is difficult to imagine Genghis Khan’s offering into the hands of terrorists XII century in exchange for Mongolian women and children captured in a hostage or Frederick II of Prussia shaken by news of the fate of kidnapped stagecoach passengers “.
Of course, the reason is simply the growing importance of the public authority that enforces the “humane” and “ethical” behavior.
And another factor. As Daniel Pipes points out, the Enlightenment is the time the flowering of all manner of luscious secret societies ( “Secret associations multiplied in the four decades after 1750 ...”),
while the peak intensity of the myth of secret societies accounted for the period 1815-1848.
Some of these organizations are preparing a political conspiracy, not refraining from assassination.
Not demonizing their role should be noted that the Bavarian Illuminati for example, had a significant impact on Buonarroti;
that the seer was also Alessandro Savioli, founder of the Association of Bologna radial.
Thus, from the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth century assassinations begins to be applied more often and more systematically, distinguishes itself from other forms of political violence, dependent on them gradually acquiring the characteristics of autonomous action.
“Favorite” to the terrorist attacks were, by then I was the Consul of the Republic, then Emperor of the French – Napoleon Bonaparte, which may explain the widespread belief in the unique role of the political scene in France and Europe. On the one hand, Bonaparte tried to kill him for betraying the revolution, the Jacobins (eg, Chevalier coup in 1800), on the other hand hate darzyli “usurper” royalists (the bloody bombing in December 1800, Georges Cadoudal shares in 1803). [Footnote: Bonaparte’s police does not leave owed, nasy?aja;c the leader szuanów (peasant Royalist) Cadoudal dozens of assassins.] Conquests have widened the circle of the French emperor’s enemies to the patriots zwasalizowanych nations (for example, that was 20-year-old Friedrich Staaps, author of the coup in October 1809 y ., associated with the German underground “Tugendbundem”).
This is the “Independence” motivation for terrorism, brought together closely with terrorism, “revolutionary” republican-democratic, will dominate the first three c’wierc’wieczach nineteenth century. [Note: It is worth to note that the specific increase in acts of terror is mid 50s Nineteenth century, so the times of the revolutionary wave after falling Springtime of Nations.] When, in June 1867 Antoni in Paris, Mr Berezovsky has failed assassination attempt on Tsar Alexander II, accompanying samodzierz.awcy Napoleon II said: “If Italy, it was an attack on me if the Pole – is for you, Your Majesty. ”
It was the Italians often reached for the dagger, pistol or a bomb – Italia is even a model example of nineteenth-century terrorism, the national-revolutionary orientation. Even in the era of the French Revolution, inspired by the example of the Republicans (among other things. Carlo Botta) formed in Turin, conspiracy, intending to kill the king and master the citadel in April 1794, after mastering Italy by Napoleon, they organize attacks on King Charles Emmanuel IV. French hegemony are not enthused, however, the Italian Jacobins, who once again descend into the underworld. In 1796 formed Black League (League of Ner), a little later in Bologna, Savioli creates radial Association (Societa dei Raggi). Bologna goes after the terror conspiracy – the fight against the French lead there, “sztyletnicy.
Beginning of the “golden era” of secret societies. J.A. Gierowski wrote in “History of Italy”: “(…) there has been a rise in Italy, many secret associations, rather vaguely about the programs and also composed of a heterogeneous society, since they met in the Jacobins of the devotees of the old order, the agents of the French and British agents burbon’skimi, supporters of Napoleon with his opponents. ” In northern Italy does so Adelfia (headed by its Luigi di Fronsinone Angelotti, the organizer of the attacks against Napoleon), in Piedmont – Together, in Romagna – the liberal Guelfi (Knights of the Guelphs), Molise – Avengers Honor Betrayed, in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies – Copycats age and Jacopo Ortis, then a Philadelphia, Edennis’ci, Tomb Central Whites Pilgrims, Reform of the French Republic, faithful hermits … Even supporters of Murata (Gen. De Meester) in December 1814, set up a conspiracy in Milan.
In Naples, the most serious rozkrzewi?a flourish (in 1820, reportedly numbering 642.000 members!) Of the then underground – karbonaryzm. Carbonari probably derive from the brotherhoods’ charbonniers “(charcoal burners) in the Franche-Comte, which about 1800 were under the influence of Jacobin filadelfistów. After 1806, we;glarstwo appears in Calabria (being in opposition to the French government of Marshal Murat), where gradually spreads to the rest of Italy. We;glarstwo characterized by complex ritual and symbolism borrowed from the Scottish Rite Freemasonry. Also, the organizational structure was based on patterns of Freemasonry: “good uncles” (as they called themselves Carbonari) according to the degrees were uhierarchizowani (journeyman, master, grand master) and organized into a “bararcche” (in Polish nomenclature “Poreba”), “tents” tudziez “provinces”. Members of the conspiracy had to be armed, punishable by death to traitors. Their program came down to vague slogans against tyranny, to free Italy from foreign countries and the creation of the federal Constitution, but higher levels Carbonari professed republican ideas, and even socialist.
Was associated with karbonaryzmem Buonarroti – even a symbolic figure for the nineteenth-century revolutionary conspiracies.
Daniel Pipes wrote about him, “the Italian Filippo Buonarroti was a prominent conspirator, the man who organized the secret national associations in almost all Europei. The shadows of almost fifty years of conspiracy, from the French Revolution (participated in the conspiracy Equal Babeuf), and disappeared, long after his death. ”
Since 1809, working with Adelfia Buonarroti (which converts the Societa dei Federatie Italiani), a year later to strengthen their influence creates a sublime lounge Champions excellent (Sublimia maestri perfetti), reorganized in 1818 at the same time has established contacts with karbonariuszami Guelfi (the sect of “earnest”), probably responsible for the plots and political murders in Romagna in the period 20 In this way a wide-branched conspiratorial organization, which works to overthrow the government of the Holy Alliance by revolutionary attacks. In 1820 the Carbonari incites uprising in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and Spain in the next year in Piedmont, reiterate them even in 1831 (Modena, Parma and Rome). All these attempts failed to bear, thus contributing to the collapse of the Italian karbonaryzmu (although Buonarroti still trying to save his position, assuming another mafia organization – the Association of True Italians).
Their lives while the bloom we;glarstwo in France – as Louis XVII and Charles X had to be there at least 12.000 Carbonari. At their head stood Gen. M.J. La Fayette, with the majority of the conspirators go on after the July Revolution was the Orleans dynasty. Leadership then motion capture radical elements led by Buonarottiego, who in 1831 created the so-called. Democratic We;glarstwo widespread, led by the Supreme Tent General.
He directed the activities of national secret tents (French, Italian, German, Swiss, Spanish and Polish), which in turn were subject to various secret (undivided Trinity lodge) and open (Amis du Peuple) trade-growing revolutionary propaganda. When, however, planned for 1833, a general uprising also ends in a fiasco karbonaryzmu inevitable decline – the seal is Buonarrotie death in 1837, the French amateur plots will now focus on the banners blankizmu organizations such as the Association of Families (1834-1835), Association of the Seasons year (1838-1839) and subsequent complicity in the years 1859-1861 and 1865-70.
[Note: Association of the Seasons was closely staffing structure: it was the basic cell of seven “weeks” under the command of “Sunday”, four “weeks” made up “month”, three “months” to “season” … This probably inspired the organization G.K. Chesterton to write a metaphysical drama about anarchistach “The man who was Thursday of”.]
But let us return to Italy, where, after 1831, displacing Carbonari supporters of Mazzini.
Giuseppe Mazzini himself since 1827, Carbonari, but in June 1831 he formed his own organization of Young Italy (La Giovine Italia) with sections of Genoa, Tuscany, Romagna and Umbria. Mazzini proclaimed: “There is no career in the world more sacred than the career of a conspirator, who is the avenger of humanity and the interpreter of the eternal laws of nature.” In 1833, Young Italy already having 60.000 members, divided – according to the conspiratorial designs – the two categories have a military arm in the form of the Italian Legion. Subsequent attempts at an uprising (even in 1845) do not produce results, nothing gives it the establishment of new organizations: the Young Europe in 1834 in Switzerland, the European Democratic Central Committee in 1850 in London, and finally Deed Party (Partito d ‘ azione).
Failure of attempts to successive uprisings (especially the Spring of Nations) and the ensuing repression pushed some of the revolutionaries to terrorism. In November 1848, Prime Minister of the Papal States P. Rossi was stabbed to death by Luigi Brunetti (which has become known for. Circolo Popolare), a bit earlier and attempted to assassinate the Grand Duke of Modena. In 1854 at the hands of the conspirators killed Fr. Charles III of Parma, and two years later, abducts a participant in the Spring of Nations – unsuccessfully – to force Ferdinand II, King of Naples.
Mazzini were also accused of preparing an attempt on the King of Sardinia in 1857, the Italians imported terrorism beyond its borders of Italy: in 1855, an anarchist Giovanni Pianoli wants to “punish” the failure of Napoleon III for assistance liberation struggle Italians in 1858, the same can not be partisan nonetheless mazzinistów of “Young Italy” (Felix hr. Orsini, Charles de Rudio, Antoine Gomez and others).
In a similar situation as the Italians were in the nineteenth century Germany.
In April 1808, members of the Masonic lodge Krolewiec form Tugendbund (Association of virtues, you can also meet with the name Totenbund), a secret society which seeks its objectives patriotic. Although under pressure from the French, it was resolved in December 1809, but its seeds wzeszed? soon. After the Congress of Vienna by the German wave sweeping youth movement, in its ideology between “longing for the tradition of the Holy Empire of the German Nation, utopian democracy of, password reunification of Germany, the hatred of the Enlightenment and software irrationalism, racism and harsh Germanic anti-Semitism” (T. Kroriski). His first swallow was the Union Friendly (Black) created by Karl and Augusta Follenów of Giessen, 12 June 1815, in Jena Burschenschaft first formed in October 1817, Congress held corporations in Eisenach. One of the movement theorists, Professor Fries, warned his enemies: “Let the unjust murder of hoods broke the sacred”, and the March 1819 year students killed in Mainz Sand Czarist agent v. Kotzebuego. Corresponds to the holy covenant banning corporations, K. Follen trying to keep creating traffic in Switzerland Association of husbands … German nationalists, however, does not make weapons. A similar background – the pursuit of the unification of Germany on democratic principles – has a lot later (July 1861) Oskar Becker’s attack on the King of Prussia, Wilhelm IV. Not everyone, however, were enthusiastic about the reunification of Germany, put up some loyalty to the local dynasty, more than national ties. In Hanover, after the annexation of the kingdom of Prussia separatists invented a fun way to legally put away Bismarck – the men formed a so-called officers. Association of Grace, whose members were subsequently challenge the Chancellor to a duel. Similarly, somewhere on the border of two trends – National independence and socio-political – situates the murder of the ruler of Serbia, Fr. Michael Obrenovic (10 June 1868), for which the accused was Omladina (United Serbian Youth). This created two years earlier, the radical organization has criticized both the internal (absolutism) and foreign (procrastination) policy of the emperor, demanding a general uprising against the occupying powers to create a democratic federation of Balkan peoples. Subsequent attacks on the Serbian monarch Milan, inspired by the Radical Party and removed from the throne of dynasty Karadziordziewic’ów, repeated in 1879 and 1899, [Footnote: mention one more aspect of the Balkan attacks – usually associated with the rivalry between great powers for influence in the region — for example, attacked Obrenovic represented – unlike Karadziordziewic’ów – proaustriacka; orientation. ]
IRELAND and Hungary_
Among the nations who fought in the nineteenth century of independence we are also Irish and Hungarians, they also could not therefore fail to register terrorists.
Ireland may be demonstrated by lush and ancient traditions of terror. Already in 1761 in Munster begin the movement of the White Boys (White Boys) who defends the rights of Irish peasants against the English landlordom – a specific form of terrorism, spontaneous, mass and economic development; a similar nature were Ulster Oak Heart (Hearts of Oak). In response to Protestant colonists set up in the 70s this century the organization of Boys Dawn (Peep – O’Day Boys), that uses terror against Catholics, and in 1795, the terrorist mafia of religious Orange Order. In the next years of armed struggle with the program angloprotestanckim occupier has been fostered by the United Irishmen (1791) and the Young Ireland (1848). In turn, the Hungarian patriots, operating under the leadership of Kossuth wished to defeat the revolution of 1848 to assassinate Emperor Franz Joseph, so that you can accelerate the emergence of a new nation. From these circles went too Janos Libenyi – the perpetrator of the assassination of the emperor in February 1853.
May wonder Polish niepodleg?os’ciowców poor representation in the nineteenth-century terrorism. If you do not count the failed attempt to kidnap the king of SA Poniatowski by Bar Confederates (3 November 1771) that none of the countless Polish independence sprzysie;z.en’ [Footnote: From Republikantów Polish Society (1798-1800) through the Association of Free Poles (1819-1820), National Freemasonry (1819-1820), National Association Patriotic (1821-1826), Polish Association of mining (1833-1834), Polish People mazzinistowskie Association (1835-1837), Polish People’s Association (1837-1838), until the Union of the Polish Nation (1839-1843) and the Association Plebeians (1842 -1846) – to name a few.] raised no hand against the ruling, not used the assassination. This should be explained unless antykrólobójczymi traditions of the Republic, ‘chivalry’ ethos of our nobility, and finally influences of Catholicism, which requires respect for the anointed. All these factors meant that it was never implemented a plan to murder Tsar Nicholas during the coronation in Warsaw in 1829 (which echoes can be found on the pages of “Kordian).
Polish national liberation movement began to use terror – albeit sporadically – 60 years this century. Already on the eve of the January military branch of the National Central Committee arranged several unsuccessful attempts to Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich (Jaroszynski Louis in July 1862 year) and Marquis Wielopolski (Ryll and Joseph Louis Rzonca in August). After the uprising was organized so. security guard, a rebel counter-intelligence as the defender of the National Government before the tsar repression, as the coup of the White. “Sztyletnicy”, which in Warsaw alone had 200, were mainly on the execution of sentences szpiclach and traitors, but in May 1863 years supported the revolution “Red” threat of death, representatives of the Right. At the end of the uprising (September and October 1863) tried to go to the terror offensive, making, among others. September 19 attack on Gen. Berg. However, contrary to such later Irish liberation movement – in Poland, the terror was a secondary weapon, used occasionally.
Examples of terrorism motivated by national considerations we are finally in and semi-colonial countries. Let’s start with the United States. At least since 1769, when South Carolina was farmerska organization called the “Regulators”, are developing so there. vigilante movements. In the era of the War of Independence those “people of minutes” (minutemen – named so from the time in which they appear on the collection in the event of an alarm) formed a revolutionary army. J. George and L. Wilcox, presenting the American extremism mention that the American Revolution were doing “the people who today would be described as terrorists,” Sons of Liberty (Sons of Liberty) attacked the officials and supporters of the English Crown, loyalists organized attempts to force Mr Washington.
Also in India often killed by British colonial officers (eg, the two officers killed in Multani on April 20, 1848, Governor Richard Bourke in India January 24, 1872 was killed by a prisoner on Andamanach). There are also secret organizations of a religious forces: the Muslim wahabici sitan, Oatna and Delhi (routed to 1868) and Ram Singh Namdhari Hindu Punjab (defeated in 1872) turned not only against the British colonizers, but also against innowiercom.
The militant anti-European movement of the face manifests itself in Japan under the title “sonno-joi (revere the emperor, expel the barbarians). Dissatisfaction with the humiliation by colonial powers shogunate manifest from 1859 attacks on the Europeans, foreign legacji arson, killings of police officers working for the Japanese and foreigners. In 1860, the samurai led Sekiego Tetsunosuke and Arimury Jizaemona killed Ii Naosuke pro-European policy. Hatred is the culmination of years 1862-1863 (eg in 1862, is an attack on Englishmen – one of whom is killed – in a village near Namamugi Yokohama), but the murder of foreigners still occur during the civil war between the Emperor and Shogun (11 French killed in Sakai in 1868, comes to the attack on the British Minister Smith-Parkes on the way to Kyoto).
Socio-political trend in the nineteenth century, terrorism grows in the soil of internal conflicts, and generally has the face of “Jacobin”, ie, Republican-DEMOCRATIC.
[Note: The ideological diversity of the conspirators named by my contract (following the nomenclature of the Holy Alliance) “Jacobins”, however, was large: the supporters of a constitutional monarchy after the Socialists. There are exceptions: in spite of its populist bonapartys’ci were not Republicans or Democrats, but their work was the murder in February of 1820 years of Prince Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry (although according to some historians, the perpetrator of this attack, journeyman Pierre Louvel, a Republican, and according to others – after just a psychopath), and an unsuccessful attempt to Alibauda Louis King Louis-Philippe in July 1836. ]
In France, the Republicans of steel, among others. as an attempt to murder the king Louis-Philippe in July 1835 year (Giuseppe Fieschi) [Footnote: Schmidt also made mention only in the years 1835-1836 bombings Boireau, Bergeron, Neuniera, Dermesa, Leconte and Henry!] and for some at least numerous attempts on the Emperor Napoleon III (which were repeated frequently: in 1852, 1854, up threefold in 1855, 1858 …) in England as early as the late eighteenth century, the Republicans have tried repeatedly to kill King George III (eg, Hadfield coup in May 1800 r .) dies while in 1812 the Tory Prime Minister Spencer Perceval. But so was the loudest. “Cato Street conspiracy” in London in February 1820, – the radicals, led by Arthur Thistlewooda wanted to kill the entire cabinet gathered for dinner. During the rapid development czartyzmu bombers to become Queen Victoria, which supporters of the movement czartystowskiego tried unsuccessfully to kill in June 1840 (Edward Oxford) and May 1842 (John F.) year.
Also in Prussia failed attempt to remove the King William IV, undertaken by Sefeloge Democrat in 1850. In the face of terrorism, the liberals and democrats stood Spain: in December 1870 years assassination of Prime Minister Don Juan Prima (as accused Republicans), in 1872 an attempt by Republicans to destroy the King Amadeus. In Greece, the student Ariofides Dousios was in September 1861, the author of the assassination of Queen Ametie. In Ecuador ultrakatolicki dictator Gen. Garcia Moreno was on August 6, 1875 killed at the initiative of liberals organized in Masonic lodges.
Development of capitalism also results in spontaneous resistance to the host form of economic terrorism, of which the best known manifestation is the motion luddystów.
English proletarians of the first generation for his affliction borne mainly machinery, and at the end of 1811 their anger explodes in Nottingham wave of sabotage. Says researcher phenomenon Kirkpatrick Sale, in 1812, in Manchester is meeting rebel workers, which decides on the forms of protest: they place on the night attacks the rich, and tan are factories, manufacturers and craftsmen receive threatening letters signed by the mythical leader of the movement –
– “General Ned Ludd”. Parliament passed in 1813, the draconian reprisals against luddystom (the death penalty for any damage to the machine!), But the movement revived in 1816 and even 1826, and in 40 years [Note: the story of Kirkpatrick Sale luddyzmu in his work “Rebels Against the Future” (Quartet Books, 1996).
Meeting works, moreover, to resurrect luddyzmu – the so-called. Luddism second Congress held in Ohio in 1996]
Terrorist in nature even more pronounced in the United States was operating secret organization called the “Molly Maguires”. It was founded by miners from Ireland to establish a tradition of brotherhood tamtejszych terrorist (its members were drawn from the Order of the Irish – Ancient Order of Hibernians). Starting from the Civil War began to intensify the bombings, arson, mutilation (for example, hated supervisors cut off noses and ears) and murder, which reached its apogee during the great miners’ strike in Pennsylvania (January-April 1875). In 1874, the Pinkerton agents to permeate the organization, which has contributed to the breakdown of “Molly Maguires” and three years later (for example, said miners’ strike ended with the leaders of the workers hanging 20).
[Note: Also during the railway strike in 1877 to place the murder and arson. Under these conditions no longer surprising characteristic of the U.S. fusion of the trade unions with the mafia, well presented in the movie “FIST” That it is not only a convincing fiction murder – along with his family – the miners union activist Joseph Yablonskiego on December 30, 1969]
Southern Italy also saw a similar workers’ organizations – created on the basis of Ziomkowski by fresh immigrants from the countryside, too interested in ideology, using violence. Called. “fascia dei lavoratori” (siciliani fascia “) in 1893, fought with police in Palermo, Messina and Catania.
Individual has used terror as the Far right – a bit of overstatement, we will all be classified as terrorism in defense of the status quo. Sometimes he had a spontaneous nature of the resistance against change and did not involve any ideology. Here you can include for example the assassination of President Kapostriadisa Greece in October 1831 (made by the brothers Petrobeja Mavromihalisa, guerrilla leader of the Mani peninsula), the assassination of the Prince of Montenegro Dani?y in August 1860, due to reduction of its traditional powers of the leaders of genealogies, or attacks in 1852 and 1896, by which panislamistyczna sect babistów tried to remove the Shah of Persia Nasser ed-Din.
Similarly, one can evaluate the assassination attempt Kullmanna Edward Chancellor Bismarck to what occurred in 1874, inspired by Catholic circles (this was the period of the “Kulturkampf”).
Sometimes, however, terrorism was by far the reactionary nature and – associated with that – clearly zideologizowany.
Here are a handful of examples: Hugo de Basseville, a representative of the French Republic in Rome, January 13, 1793 was murdered during the tumult, by unknown assailants, the closest associate of Bolivar Jose Antonio de Sucre murderously killed on June 4, 1830, in 1861, Catholics in Mexico partisans of General Marquez us’miercaja; liberal leaders (Ocampo, Degollado, Valle) in January 1870, a cousin of Emperor Bonaparte shot Republican Peter W. Noir; 14 May 1878 the Japanese Minister of Internal Affairs Toshimichi Okubo was assassinated by a group of Samurai made Shimady Ichiro known ksenofoba and reactionary.
These acts of terror, there is generally sporadic, isolated, secondary.
Sometimes, however, and the response has used terrorism in an organized way, that mention of the terror militias antyjakobin’skim “golden youth” (muscadines) within the Directorate and the “white terror” in an era Legitimists restaurant (the most famous – but not the only – example is the lynching of Marshal G . Brune at Avignon on August 2, 1815). Especially 1 half of the nineteenth century was full of secret brotherhood clerical-feudal reaction: in Ireland there was already mentioned the Order of Orange in Spain acted “Knights of the Faith”, in France under the reign of Louis XVIII was the Congregation – a powerful secret association, and the clergy szalchty directed against ideas and people of the revolution “(also sometimes called the Knights of the Faith).
And again, a perfect example of Italy appear here! Even during the Napoleonic occupation, the Conservatives form secret organizations such as the Society of Sacred Heart of Jesus in the Italian Republic, Friendship Christian (Christiana Amicizia), operating in Piedmont since 1782, the Faith Holy Army (Armata della Santa Fede), established in 1797 in Naples by Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo. Not disappear after the restaurant ancien regime: in the Papal States santafedisti transformed into 1830, the Congregation of the Holy. Cross (next to the work Concistoriali Cardinal Consalvi) in Piedmont Christian friendship replaces Amicizia Cattolica, a similar anti-revolutionary organizations also exist in Modena (Konsystorzy) and Naples (Mangals – “caldera”, led by police chief Antonio Capece Minutolo).
In Spain, the reactionary forces, opposing the capitalist modernization of the traditional agrarian society, focused around the pretender Don Carlos. Karlis’ci (batch apostolic “) stirred up under the banner of defending Catholicism, a number of peasant rebellion in northern Spain. From these circles probably originated priest Martin Merino, a Franciscan of Aragon, who in February of 1852 years attempted to stab the power of Queen Isabella II. [Note: Although Szmidt, classifies it as … “liberal konstytucjonaliste;”!]
A similar situation occurred in the United States. In response to the increased in the mid-nineteenth century immigration from Ireland and Germany, activate a secret brotherhood there, Protestant, inspiring physical attacks on Catholics and Jews. This group of communities of secret societies has grown the American Party (also known as the Know Nothing Party), who gave themselves felt in the elections 1854, but broke up around 1860 – the hallmark of the former secret password and secret ceremonies.
Further impetus to the development of reactionary terrorism has given the American Civil War. In April of 1865 years reactionary JW Booth murdered U.S. President A. Lincoln, the conspirators while others try to kill the Secretary of State Seward and Vice President Johnson. Kind of following in their footsteps when they reached the terror defeated the Confederates. After the defeat of the South begin to multiply secret organizations to terrorize freed blacks, such as the Knights of the White Camellia in New Orleans. The most famous of these was the Ku Klux Klan, founded on the model in December 1865 Masonic year in Tennessee (reportedly for … fun!). In the summer of 1867 years all of these groups combine at the convention in Nashville under the command of General Nathan Bedford Forrest and the KKK terror (lynching in ghostly white clothes, symbolizing the spirits of the Confederates) spread over the entire South.
Let us out – indicated in the previous chapter – the relationship between politics and the criminal world.
They were most apparent – again – in Southern Italy.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the great problem of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the so-called robbery. Brigants .
One of them, Ciro Annunchiarico or Annichiarico , organized in late 1816 and 1817, the confederation of brigants strength 20.000 people. Its kind of a political superstructure was Anticlerical Jupiter Lodge, also known as Decisions (Decisi) firm and the Order of the Assembly of Patriots of the reformed European Union (patrioti Europei).
Daraul described their action as follows: “Certain parts of the country was under their full control. In other places, wanders through the countryside along the lines of partisan (…). In the more densely populated areas hired killers undercover and waiting for the moment to sink their knives in the chest of people passed in death by a confederation of secret societies … ”
Annunchiarico organization did not survive long, routed by the royal army
(not without significance was the fact that some leaders brigant such as Gaetano Vardarelli cooperated with the king!).
Proved to be more permanent, semi-criminal organization Sicilian: the mafia, according to some researchers, who performs a function skrytobójczych militia in the service of absolutism. Probably it was created by the field guards, who on behalf of the barons of the Palermo peasants and supervised the imposition of these tributes. “Onorata società” (Ladies Association), because that is the official name of the Mafia, comprised widely branched network of local groups (such as “Mano fraterna” in Agrigento, “Fratellanza in Favarze,” Biritti “in Cattolica Eraclea,” Fontana Nuova in Misilmeri), operating mainly in rural areas. In the late nineteenth century, the role of the mafia is growing, because in a democracy, it obtains a greater impact on the state apparatus. Mafia, among others. infiltrates, and then – apparently – pacyfikuje Sicilian “fascia dei lavoratori” (provoking riots in 1893) also became renowned in the murder of the Marquis Notarbolo on February 1, 1893 .
The most complicated is the casus Neapolitan Camorra – perhaps the only time a criminal organization operating in the city. It bore the official name of the Association of Fine and reformed from the September 12, 1842 had its own statutes. Camorra basically shunned from politics, it proclaimed the national anthem “We’re not karbonariuszami, we are not royalists, we are kamorystami – we can handle with both.” Which is the base organization of the urban poor of Naples, however, sympathized with the House burbon’ska; rather than with the liberal bourgeoisie, so it’s no wonder that steel kamorrys’ci reportedly headed antyjakobin’skiej revolt “lazzaroni” (beggars) in Naples in 1799, since accession to the throne in 1825, Francis And the police openly cooperated with Camorra (chief of police had even taken part in meetings of the Association!). After 1848, however, the organization has an ally in the Liberal opposition – an alliance that makes it at the time of Garibaldi’s revolution in 1860 kamorrys’ci created in Naples … police!
Finally, we are dealing with the manifestations of “state of international terrorism” – this kind of act was such kidnapping in the territory of Baden, and shot by the French secret service Comte d’Enghien, in March 1809 .